7 Reasons to Eat More Citrus Fruits
By Kerri-Ann Jennings, MS, RD — Updated on Jan 27, 2017
Sweet, brightly colored citrus fruits bring a burst of sunshine into winter days. But citrus fruits are not only flavorful and pretty — they’re also good for you.
This class of fruits includes lemons, limes, oranges and grapefruit, as well as many more hybrids and varieties.
They have a bunch of health benefits, from boosting immunity to fighting cancer.
Read on to find out 7 reasons to eat citrus fruits.
What Are Citrus Fruits?
Citrus fruits grow on flowering trees and shrubs. They are characterized by a leathery rind and white pith that encases juicy segments.
They’re native to Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and possibly Southeast Asia (1Trusted Source).
Nowadays, they are cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates all over the world. Major production hubs include Spain, Brazil, China, the US, Mexico and India (1Trusted Source).
Interestingly, nearly a third of all citrus fruits are used to make juice (1Trusted Source).
You can find all kinds of citrus fruits year round. The peak season for oranges and grapefruits in the Northern Hemisphere is between mid-December and April.
Here are some popular varieties of citrus fruits:
Sweet oranges: Valencia, navel, blood orange, cara cara
Mandarins: Satsuma, clementine, tangor, tangelo
Limes: Persian, key lime, kaffir
Grapefruit: White, ruby red, oroblanco
Lemons: Eureka, Meyer
Other kinds: Citron, sudachi, yuzu, pomelos
1. They’re Rich in Vitamins and Plant Compounds
Citrus fruits are an excellent source of vitamin C, a nutrient that strengthens the immune system and keeps your skin smooth and elastic (2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source, 4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source).
In fact, just one medium orange has all the vitamin C you need in a day (6).
Citrus fruits also have good amounts of other vitamins and minerals that your body needs to function properly, including B vitamins, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium and copper (7Trusted Source).
Additionally, they are rich in plant compounds that have various health benefits, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
These compounds include over 60 varieties of flavonoids, carotenoids and essential oils, and they are responsible for many of citrus fruit’s health benefits (7Trusted Source, 8Trusted Source).
Citrus fruits are very nutritious, offering a host of vitamins, minerals and plant compounds that help keep you healthy.
2. They’re a Good Source of Fiber
Citrus fruits are a good source of fiber. Just one cup of orange segments contains four grams of fiber (6).
To put that in perspective, it’s recommended that you consume 14 grams of fiber for every 1,000 calories you eat. It’s estimated that only 4% of men and 13% of women in the US get that amount (9Trusted Source).
Fiber has several health benefits, including improving digestive health and aiding weight loss.
Oranges are particularly high in soluble fiber, the kind of fiber that helps lower cholesterol levels (10Trusted Source).
Compared to other fruits and vegetables, citrus fruits are unique in that they have a higher ratio of soluble to insoluble fiber (11Trusted Source).
Citrus fruits are good sources of soluble fiber, which helps lower cholesterol and aids digestion.
3. Citrus Fruits Are Low in Calories
If you’re watching your calorie intake, citrus fruits are a good choice.
They’re low in calories, yet their water and fiber contents help fill you up.
Here’s how many calories the main kinds of citrus fruits contain (6, 12, 13, 14, 15):
- 1 small clementine: 35
- 1 medium orange: 62
- 1/2 pink grapefruit: 52
- 1/2 white grapefruit: 39
- Juice from 1 lemon: 12
What’s more, a 2015 study that looked at people’s eating habits and weight over 24 years found that eating citrus fruits was linked to weight loss (16Trusted Source).
Citrus fruits are low in calories, making them a smart choice for people seeking to lose or maintain their weight.
4. They May Reduce Your Risk of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are painful mineral crystals.
They can form when your urine is very concentrated or when you have higher-than-normal amounts of stone-forming minerals in your urine.
One type of kidney stone is caused by low levels of citrate in urine.
Many fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, can raise the levels of citrate in your urine, lowering the risk of kidney stones (17Trusted Source).
Drinking citrus juices and eating these fruits can offer a natural alternative to potassium citrate supplements.
According to data on American eating habits over the last 40 years, kidney stones are more common in people who eat fewer citrus fruits (18Trusted Source).
Eating citrus fruits may help lower the risk of kidney stones in some people by raising citrate levels in urine.
4. They May Help Fight or Protect Against Cancer
Many studies have linked citrus fruits to a reduced risk of certain cancers (1Trusted Source).
In one study, people who ate one grapefruit or drank one serving of grapefruit juice daily had a lower risk of lung cancer (19Trusted Source).
Other studies have suggested that citrus fruits may also protect against esophageal, stomach, breast and pancreatic cancers (20Trusted Source, 21Trusted Source, 22Trusted Source, 23Trusted Source).
These fruits contain a host of plant compounds, including flavonoids, that may help protect against cancer (8Trusted Source).
Some of these flavonoids act as antioxidants and may block the expression of certain genes that are responsible for some degenerative diseases, including cancer (8Trusted Source).
Citrus fruits may also help fight cancer by suppressing cancers, blocking the formation of new cancers and making carcinogens inactive (8Trusted Source).
Citrus fruits have been widely studied for their protective effects on a variety of cancer types.
- They Contain Nutrients That Boost Heart Health
Eating citrus fruits could be good for your heart.
In fact, a Japanese study found that people who ate higher amounts of these fruits had lower rates of heart disease and stroke (24Trusted Source).
Furthermore, a 2017 review suggests that grapefruits are linked to a decrease in systolic blood pressure (25Trusted Source).
Several compounds in citrus fruits can improve markers of heart health.
For example, their soluble fiber and flavonoids may improve cholesterol levels by raising “good” HDL cholesterol and lowering “bad” LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (7Trusted Source).
And many of the flavonoids in citrus fruits, including one called naringin, are strong antioxidants that benefit the heart in several ways (26Trusted Source).
Many compounds in citrus fruits can benefit heart health by improving cholesterol levels and lowering blood pressure.
- They May Protect Your Brain
The flavonoids in citrus fruits may help ward off neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, which result from the breakdown of cells in the nervous system.
In part, these diseases are caused by inflammation.
Flavonoids found in citrus fruits have anti-inflammatory capabilities that are thought to help protect against the chain of events that causes the nervous system to deteriorate (27Trusted Source, 28Trusted Source).
Specific types of flavonoids, including hesperidin and apigenin, have been shown to protect brain cells and improve brain function in mice and test-tube studies (27Trusted Source).
Several studies in older adults have also shown that citrus juices may boost brain function (29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source).
Citrus fruits and juices may help boost brain function and protect the brain from neurodegenerative disorders.
The Downside of Citrus Fruits
While the overall picture of citrus is pretty rosy, there are a few potential downsides.
High Amounts Could Cause Cavities
Eating lots of citrus fruits or juices could increase the risk of cavities. That’s because the acid in citrus fruits erodes tooth enamel (32Trusted Source, 33Trusted Source).
This is a particular risk if you sip on lemon water all day long, bathing your teeth in acid.
Interestingly, certain compounds in citrus peels may combat the bacteria that cause dental cavities, although more research is needed to see how that information could be used (34Trusted Source).
Fruit Juice Isn’t as Healthy as Whole Fruit
While orange and grapefruit juices contain lots of vitamin C and other nutrients often found in whole citrus fruits, they’re not quite as healthy.
That’s because a serving of juice delivers much more sugar and way less fiber than a serving of whole fruit (6, 35).
There are a couple reasons why that’s a problem.
First, more sugar per serving translates to more calories. Drinking fruit juice and other high-calorie beverages can cause you to gain weight (36Trusted Source).
Second, when your body takes in large amounts of fructose (the type of sugar in fruit juice), it is quickly absorbed into your bloodstream and delivered to your liver (37Trusted Source).
If your liver gets more fructose than it can handle, it turns some of the extra fructose into fat. Over time, those fat deposits can cause fatty liver disease (38Trusted Source).
Getting fructose from whole fruit is not a problem, given that you’re getting a smaller amount at a time. Plus, the fiber found in fruit buffers the fructose, causing it to be absorbed more slowly into your bloodstream.
Grapefruit Can Interact With Certain Medications
Eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice can be a problem if you take certain medications.
There’s an enzyme in your gut that reduces the absorption of certain medications. Furanocoumarin, a chemical in grapefruit, binds to this enzyme and keeps it from working properly.
As a result, your body absorbs more medication than it’s supposed to (39Trusted Source).
Furanocoumarin is also found in tangelos and Seville oranges (the kind used for marmalade).
There are several prescription and over-the-counter drugs that are affected by grapefruit, including (40Trusted Source):
Some statins, for high cholesterol, including Lipitor and Zocor
Some calcium channel blockers, for high blood pressure, including Plendil and Procardia
Cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant drug
Some Benzodiazepines, including Valium, Halcion and Versed
Other medications, including Allegra, Zoloft and Buspar
While citrus fruits are generally healthy, they can have some drawbacks. Their acid can erode tooth enamel and grapefruit can interact with some medications.
The Bottom Line
There are many reasons to eat citrus fruits.
They’re nutritious and contain plant compounds that can protect against a variety of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, brain dysfunction and kidney stones.
But aim to consume whole fruits, rather than a lot of fruit juice, as its high sugar content can lead to problems.
Overall, citrus fruits are healthy, low in calories and convenient to eat. Most people could benefit from adding more citrus to their diet.
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